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Exclusive aaoifi in wide review of islamic finance standards

´╗┐Islamic finance may face its biggest shake-up in years as a top standard-setting body seeks to reform the way the industry does business, including the role of highly paid scholars in enforcing religious principles. Khaled Al Fakih, the new secretary-general of the Bahrain-based Accounting and Auditing Organisation for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI), outlined plans for a sweeping review of its guidelines in an interview with Reuters. Some of AAOIFI's reforms may prove controversial by challenging entrenched interests in the fast-growing business. Islamic financial assets hit $1.3 trillion globally last year, a 150 percent rise in the past five years as the industry expanded beyond core markets in the Middle East and Malaysia, financial lobby group TheCityUK estimates."We would like to see insightful debate...that can help us develop standards that can benefit the industry," Fakih said by email from Bahrain, ahead of AAOIFI's annual meeting there on May 7 and 8. His organization plans to start consultations on reforming the operations of sharia boards, the groups of Islamic scholars which rule on whether financial institutions' activities and products are religiously acceptable, by the middle of this year. A final draft of the reforms is not expected to be ready before the end of next year at the earliest. AAOIFI will also work on a new framework for disclosing financial data, and will look at revising standards for takaful (Islamic insurance), investment accounts and other products. Fakih, a Lebanese-born commercial banker who took over at AAOIFI in February, said basic elements of Islamic finance such as murabaha, mudaraba and ijara - structures designed to permit investment while obeying religious bans on paying interest and pure monetary speculation - would be reviewed next year. CONTROVERSY For many in the industry, AAOIFI's review cannot come too soon. Although far smaller than conventional banking, which has tens of trillions of dollars of assets, Islamic finance has grown much more quickly in the last few years, so its flaws could start to affect banking systems and economies. Much of its growth has occurred because it can count on the support of large pools of sharia-compliant funds in the booming Gulf and southeast Asia, which have not pulled back during the global financial crisis as Western funds have. Last year's Arab Spring uprisings in the Middle East promise a fresh wave of growth; new, Islamist-led governments want to promote the industry after their authoritarian predecessors discouraged it for ideological reasons.

But the growth has exposed weaknesses in Islamic finance. One is the lack of a clear consensus on what products and procedures are permissible; the sharia boards of individual banks and investment firms can issue conflicting rulings. This can create big controversies. When Goldman Sachs (GS. N) announced last October that it planned a $2 billion sukuk issue, which would make it one of the first top Western banks to raise money in that way, its own sharia advisors approved the plan. But some other scholars criticized it; six months later, the sukuk has not been issued and it is not clear when it might be. The sharia board system is open to accusations of conflict of interest because scholars are paid handsomely - in some cases, with hourly fees of $1,000 or more - by the very firms whose behavior they are supervising. The ambiguity in regulation has let some Islamic financial institutions, such as Kuwait's Investment Dar, argue in court that contracts into which they had entered were not valid because they were not sharia-compliant in the first place. AAOIFI plans to improve the operations of sharia boards by strengthening the certification process for scholars, Fakih said. The organisation currently offers scholars two professional credentials, but they have been criticized as not sufficiently rigorous and too easy to obtain. In addition, AAOIFI is developing new guidance on the relationship between Islamic financial firms and their sharia boards, "similar to international best practices on terms of reference for financial institutions' board of directors".

One way to reduce conflicts of interest might be to limit the length of scholars' tenure at individual firms, to prevent them from forming excessively close relationships with their employers that might compromise their objectivity. However, Fakih did not mention this idea. Current AAOIFI standards acknowledge "engagement over a prolonged period of time may pose a threat to independence", but do not prescribe specific limits. AAOIFI will also look at ways of fostering the rise of a new, younger generation of Islamic scholars, through steps such as training courses, Fakih said. This could remove a bottleneck to growth in the industry by loosening the dominance of about two dozen veteran scholars who have practiced for decades and hold multiple board positions. RESISTANCE It is not yet clear whether reformers in AAOIFI will be able to push through changes over the potential opposition of many veteran scholars and financiers who profit from the status quo. Yasser Dalhawi, chief executive of Syariah Review Bureau, an Islamic finance advisory firm in Saudi Arabia, said change would be difficult. But he added that many people in the wider industry would support change as a way of ensuring growth and bringing Islamic finance closer to its religious principles. A survey of customers' attitudes to sharia boards, conducted a few years ago by a Gulf financial firm, found widespread dissatisfaction which was expressed in some cases with expletives, one prominent scholar told Reuters, declining to be named because of the sensitivity of the issue.

To balance opposition to change within AAOIFI, Fakih seems to want to involve the widest possible range of industry interests in the debate; he called for "rigorous and meaningful discussions...not only among scholars but also with all participants of Islamic finance."His plans to release a series of draft proposals for public consultation mark a change from AAOIFI's past style, which relied more on decisions made behind closed doors. ENFORCEMENT In its review, AAOIFI is also expected to discuss strengthening enforcement of its standards across the globe. They are not backed by any legal sanction, so national financial regulators decide whether to enforce them. Currently only a small number of countries, including Bahrain and Qatar, have adopted AAOIFI standards wholesale; others use them as references without making them compulsory."Unless you have a global rule, it is not really going to work as it creates arbitrage opportunities," said Murat Unal, board member at this site, a German-based consultancy. He added that in some cases, scholars had avoided strict local regulation by offering their services in countries with looser standards. At an Islamic finance seminar in Dubai this month, Muddassir Siddiqui, a prominent scholar from Malaysia, pressed his fellow panelists on who could strengthen global enforcement. There was no concrete response except for the vague idea of an international body of some sort. AAOIFI might conceivably work around this by requiring all scholars, regardless of the country where they are located, to adhere to a code of conduct that would effectively transcend legal or territorial boundaries. But powerful figures inside AAOIFI might oppose anything which limited their room for maneuver so drastically. In any case, the 21-year-old organisation is likely to have to grapple with such issues as it tries to preserve its status in the industry. So much money is now flowing into Islamic finance that other bodies, such as national regulators, may jump in if AAOIFI does not solve problems. Some are already doing so. Last year Qatar's central bank banned Islamic windows, which allow conventional banks to offer sharia-compliant products. AAOIFI already had standards which let Islamic windows function if their funds were segregated from the banks' conventional operations. But Qatar decided those standards were not sufficient - a warning sign for AAOIFI as it tries to win industry support for its reforms.

Fitch affirms sri lankas central finance at a+(lka)

´╗┐(The following statement was released by the rating agency) COLOMBO, September 16 (Fitch) Fitch Ratings Lanka has affirmed Central Finance Company Plc's (CF) National Long-Term Rating at 'A+(lka)' with a Stable Outlook. Fitch has also affirmed CF's senior secured and senior unsecured debt at 'A+(lka) and its subordinated debt at 'A(lka)'. KEY RATING DRIVERS - NATIONAL RATINGS AND DEBT CF's rating reflects its strong capitalisation, which is supported by robust profitability and high profit retention. Counterbalancing these strengths are the pressure on loan quality and its low provisioning levels compared with its peers'. The rating also captures CF's high margins, which are supported by the company's strength in raising funds at relatively low rates through the solid franchise developed over a long operating history. CF has historically maintained strong capitalisation. The regulatory reported Tier 1 capital ratio was 24.92x at end-June 2014 and the Fitch core capital (FCC) ratio was higher at around 40x. The FCC is higher because it captures the revaluation reserves, while the consolidated equity position and the balance sheet equity used are higher due to lower loan impairment charges that are in line with international accounting rules. CF's asset quality continued to be under pressure, with its regulatory non-performing loans (loans overdue by six months or more) increasing to 3.8% at end-June 2014 from 2.45% at end-June 2013. This was due to a slowing macroeconomic environment and the company's exposure to the agricultural sector, which has been adversely affected by unfavourable weather conditions. The regulatory non-performing loans (including interest in suspense) increased by 46% in the financial year ended 31 March 2014 (FY14) and by 18% in 1Q15. The ratio of impairment reserves to gross loans increased to 1.3% at end-June 2014 from 1.0% three months earlier. This is still low compared to peers and implies a lower provisioning coverage. The company has sufficient unutilised credit lines to fund its maturity mismatches. CF's well-established deposit franchise supports liquidity. Customer deposits funded about 50% of CF's assets and were fairly granular with 88% of loan contracts being for loans under LKR1m (USD7,700) at 1Q15. CF's senior unsecured debentures are rated in line with CF's National Long-Term Rating of 'A+(lka)' as they constitute unsecured and unsubordinated obligations of the company. The senior secured debentures, which are secured by a primary mortgage over receivables from identified hire-purchase and lease agreements, are also rated in line with CF's National Long-Term Rating. There is no rating uplift for the collateralisation as the note's recovery prospects are assessed to be average and comparable with those of the unsecured notes in a developing legal system. The subordinated debentures are rated one notch below CF's National Long-Term Rating of to reflect their subordination to senior unsecured creditors. RATING SENSITIVITIES - NATIONAL RATINGS AND DEBT Greater product diversity, together with improved funding flexibility commensurate with higher-rated peers, could lead to an upgrade. However, taking into account the current pressure on its asset quality, Fitch does not see an upgrade as likely in the medium term. CF's rating could be downgraded if it is not able to provide a buffer against further loan quality deterioration through profit, which would lead to an increase in unprovided NPLs relative to equity. The debt ratings will move in tandem with CF's National Long-Term Rating. CF is a Licensed Finance Company established in 1957. It is 22.6% held by the Wijenaike family, the founders of the company, 16.1% owned by Corporate Services (Pvt) Ltd, and the rest is publicly held. The company's lending portfolio consists largely of vehicle financing. Contacts: Primary Analyst Nayantara Bandaranayake Analyst 941 1254 1900 Fitch Ratings Lanka Limited 15-04, East Tower, World Trade Center Colombo 01, Sri Lanka Secondary Analyst Kanishka De Silva 941 1254 1900 Committee Chairperson Jonathan Lee Senior Director +886 2 8175 7601 Media Relations: Bindu Menon, Mumbai, Tel: +91 22 4000 1727, Email: bindu.this site CF has a 1.79% equity stake in Fitch Ratings Lanka Ltd. No shareholder other than Fitch, Inc. is involved in the day-to-day rating operations of, or credit reviews undertaken by, Fitch Ratings Lanka Ltd. Note to editors: Fitch's National ratings provide a relative measure of creditworthiness for rated entities in countries with relatively low international sovereign ratings and where there is demand for such ratings. The best risk within a country is rated 'AAA' and other credits are rated only relative to this risk. National ratings are designed for use mainly by local investors in local markets and are signified by the addition of an identifier for the country concerned, such as 'AAA(lka)' for National ratings in Sri Lanka. Specific letter grades are not therefore internationally comparable. Additional information is available at this site Applicable criteria, "Global Financial Institutions Criteria", dated 31 January 2014, "National Scale Ratings Criteria", dated 30 October 2013, "Recovery Ratings for Financial Institutions", dated 24 September 2013, "Finance and Leasing Companies Criteria" dated 11 December 2012 and "Assessing and Rating Bank Subordinated and Hybrid Securities" dated 5 December 2012 are available at this site Applicable Criteria and Related Research: Finance and Leasing Companies Criteria here Recovery Ratings for Financial Institutions here National Scale Ratings Criteria here Global Financial Institutions Rating Criteria here Assessing and Rating Bank Subordinated and Hybrid Securities Criteria here Additional Disclosure Solicitation Status here ALL FITCH CREDIT RATINGS ARE SUBJECT TO CERTAIN LIMITATIONS AND DISCLAIMERS. PLEASE READ THESE LIMITATIONS AND DISCLAIMERS BY FOLLOWING THIS LINK: here. IN ADDITION, RATING DEFINITIONS AND THE TERMS OF USE OF SUCH RATINGS ARE AVAILABLE ON THE AGENCY'S PUBLIC WEBSITE 'WWW. FITCHRATINGS. COM'. PUBLISHED RATINGS, CRITERIA AND METHODOLOGIES ARE AVAILABLE FROM THIS SITE AT ALL TIMES. FITCH'S CODE OF CONDUCT, CONFIDENTIALITY, CONFLICTS OF INTEREST, AFFILIATE FIREWALL, COMPLIANCE AND OTHER RELEVANT POLICIES AND PROCEDURES ARE ALSO AVAILABLE FROM THE 'CODE OF CONDUCT' SECTION OF THIS SITE. FITCH MAY HAVE PROVIDED ANOTHER PERMISSIBLE SERVICE TO THE RATED ENTITY OR ITS RELATED THIRD PARTIES. DETAILS OF THIS SERVICE FOR RATINGS FOR WHICH THE LEAD ANALYST IS BASED IN AN EU-REGISTERED ENTITY CAN BE FOUND ON THE ENTITY SUMMARY PAGE FOR THIS ISSUER ON THE FITCH WEBSITE.